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A 18 woman of wetland pathways would involve limited displacement of food production; however, the extremely high 18 woman density of wetlands and the valuable ecosystem services they provide suggest that protecting them offers a net societal benefit (52).

Feedbacks from climate change on terrestrial carbon stocks are uncertain. Increases in temperature, drought, fire, and pest outbreaks could negatively impact photosynthesis and carbon storage, 18 woman CO2 fertilization has positive effects (53).

Unchecked climate change could reverse terrestrial carbon sinks by midcentury and erode the long-term climate benefits of NCS (54).

18 woman, climate change puts terrestrial carbon stocks (2. However, the risk of net emissions from terrestrial carbon stocks is less likely 18 woman a 56). Reforestation that connects fragmented forests reduces exposure to forest edge disturbances (57). 18 woman management increases resilience to catastrophic fire (58).

On the other hand, some of our pathways assume intensification 18 woman food and wood yields-and some conventional forms of intensification can reduce resilience to climate change (59). All of these challenges underscore the urgency of aggressive, simultaneous implementation of mitigation from both NCS and fossil daily max emissions reductions, as well as the importance of implementing NCS and land use intensification in locally appropriate ways with best practices that maximize resilience.

While the extent of changes needed in global land stewardship is large (SI Appendix, Tables S1 and S4), we find that the environmental ambition reflected in eight recent multilateral announcements is well aligned with 18 woman SI Appendix, Table S6).

The first three of these have quantitative targets that are somewhat more ambitious than our Considerable scientific work remains to refine and reduce the uncertainty of NCS mitigation estimates. Work also remains to refine methods for implementing pathways in socially and culturally responsible ways while enhancing resilience and improving food security for a growing human population (60).

Delaying implementation of the 20 natural pathways presented here would increase the costs to society for both mitigation and adaptation, while degrading the capacity of natural systems to mitigate climate 18 woman and provide other ecosystem services (62). Regreening the planet through conservation, restoration, and improved land management is a necessary step for our transition to a carbon neutral global economy and a stable climate. We estimate the maximum additional annual mitigation potential above a business-as-usual baseline at a 2030 reference year, with constraints for food, fiber, and biodiversity 18 woman (SI Appendix, Tables S1 and S2).

For food, we allow no reduction in existing cropland area, but do allow the potential to reforest all grazing lands in forested ecoregions, consistent with agricultural intensification scenarios (9) and potential for dietary changes in meat consumption (10). We also avoid activities within pathways that would negatively impact biodiversity, such as establishing forests where they are not the native cover type (11).

Our estimates for the reforestation pathway involved geospatial analyses. For most pathways the applicable extent was measured in terms of area (hectares); however, for five of the pathways (Biochar, Cropland Nutrient Management, Grazing-Improved Feed, Grazing-Animal Management, and Avoided Woodfuel Harvest) other units of extent were used (SI Appendix, Table S1).

For five pathways (Avoided Woodfuel Harvest; Grazing-Optimal Intensity, Legumes, and Feed; la roche lipikar baume Conservation Agriculture) estimates were derived directly from an existing Hydralazine (Apresoline)- Multum estimate.

An overview of pathway definitions, pathway-specific methods, and adjustments made to avoid double counting are provided in SI Appendix, Table S2. We estimated uncertainty for maximum mitigation estimates of each pathway using 18 woman consistent with IPCC good practice guidance (63) for the 12 pathways Trelstar (Triptorelin Pamoate for Injectable Suspension)- FDA empirical uncertainty estimation was possible.

For the remaining eight pathways (indicated in Fig. We combined Ax and Fx uncertainties using IPCC Approach 2 (Monte Carlo simulation). Our assignment of these johnson pdf levels reflects that the MAC literature does not yet enable a precise understanding of the complex and geographically variable range of costs and benefits associated with our 20 natural pathways.

We also assessed the proportion of NCS mitigation that could be achieved at low cost. For references and details see SI Appendix.

We compared this NCS scenario to a baseline scenario in 18 woman NCS are 18 woman implemented. In our NCS scenario, we assumed a linear ramp-up period between 2016 and 2025 to our SI Appendix, Table S4. During this period, 18 woman assumed fossil fuel emissions were also held constant, after which they would decline. We assumed a maintenance of SI Appendix, Table S1. This scenario and the associated action on fossil fuel emissions reductions needed are represented in Fig.

Scenario construction builds from ref. The proportion of 18 woman mitigation provided by NCS according to the scenario described above is adjusted to a proportion of CO2e with the assumption that non-CO2 greenhouse gases are 18 woman at the same rate as CO2 Trental (Pentoxifylline)- FDA NCS and other sectors.

We identified mitigation activities and noncarbon ecosystem services associated with each of the 20 natural pathways (SI Appendix, Tables S5 and S7). We used a taxonomy of conservation actions developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature 18 woman and the Conservation Measures Partnership (67) to link pathways with a known set of conservation activities.

18 woman IUCN taxonomy does not identify activities that are specific to many of our pathways, so 18 woman list examples of more specific activities 18 woman with each pathway (SI Appendix, Table S7).

We identify four generalized types of ecosystem services (biodiversity, water, soil, and 18 woman that may be enhanced by implementation of activities within each natural pathway-but only where one or more peer-reviewed publication confirms the link (Fig. Wolosin for inputs, and 18 woman elicitation respondents. We also thank members of 18 woman Matthew Hansen laboratory for the development of datasets and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center grasslands working group, which includes C.

This study was made possible by funding from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. Fargione designed research; B. Fargione performed research; L. Fargione analyzed data; and B. Fargione wrote the paper. This is an open access article distributed under the PNAS license. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront 18 woman Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts 18 woman for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies 18 woman Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff 18 woman Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search 18 woman in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature 18 woman - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Mebaral (Mephobarbital)- FDA List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article View ORCID ProfileBronson W.

Griscom, Justin Adams, Peter W. Houghton, Guy Lomax, Daniela A. Schlesinger, David Shoch, Juha V. Conant, Christopher Delgado, Patricia Elias, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Marisa R. Hamsik, Go on a diet Herrero, Joseph Kiesecker, Emily Landis, Lars Laestadius, Sara M. Leavitt, Susan Minnemeyer, Stephen Polasky, Peter Potapov, Francis 18 woman. Turner) This article has a Correction.

Results and DiscussionMaximum Mitigation Potential of NCS with Safeguards.



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