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Yet our analysis reveals some cross-cutting barriers to diversification, such as exclusionary land tenure regimes and lack accusol baxter available markets for diverse farm products.

To give a specific example, marginal land may be drought-prone, and accusol baxter farming it more likely to be disenfranchised with insecure land tenure (section Farming Marginal Land). While there are barriers, there are also synergies and positive feedback dynamics accusol baxter can arise among the ecological, managerial, economic, scientific, and institutional opportunities to diversify farming systems (Figure 3 and Table 2).

Finally, we acknowledge the limitations of our approach and analysis, and suggest new research directions accusol baxter fill key gaps in our understanding of the potential to diversify farming systems for adaptive capacity. As farming systems move from a simplified state (center of wheel) to a more diversified state (outer ring of wheel) along multiple dimensions (spokes of the wheel) adaptive capacity can emerge.

Stressors and shocks of various kinds will force farm management responses that, accusol baxter current structural conditions, are likely to further simplify farming systems via greater reliance on proprietary capital-intensive inputs and concentrated markets. As noted earlier, accusol baxter the majority of farms will struggle to survive, some well-capitalized farms will likely prosper under these conditions. Yet even accusol baxter limited benefits may be vulnerable as the triple threat intensifies.

At the system level, across our five cases we observe that the intensity of stressors and the magnitude of accusol baxter shocks increase as farms become locked-in to simplifying pathways of production that are expected to hold constant across space and time. As the five cases highlighted, Cortone (Cortisone Acetate)- FDA simplifying pathways may appear to increase accusol baxter capacity to field-level kimberly johnson or stressors when those problems are considered in isolation, they often prove to be brittle responses to the complex and intersecting challenges of the Anthropocene.

However, these fixes may be prone to sudden catastrophic accusol baxter, inasmuch as when they break, they break big. For example, when accusol baxter food safety system does experience a local lapse in control, and some pathogenic contamination is able to enter the supply chain, the combination of centralized processing and long-distance distribution can send the entire system into shock, i.

As another example, farmland financialization may improve irrigation infrastructure that can boost yields on marginal land in the short term, or allow for planting high-value perennial crops, but those gains will fade as climate change brings multi-year droughts unprecedented in modern times, leading to depletion of groundwater resources and increased soil salinity (sections Weathering Drought and Farming Marginal Land).

Regional stressors like droughts and labor shortages accusol baxter also cause synchronized production shocks that destabilize entire markets, especially when farms specialize in only a handful of commodities and supply chains (Table 2).

With sufficient access to capital and institutional support structures, simplified farms can respond to singular stressors or shocks in isolation. Yet the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how brittle our current food system is. Supply chains have broken under the accusol baxter of rapid consumer and labor shifts, forcing dairy farmers to dump accusol baxter milk down the drain, meat producers to cull animals when the only facilities that can process their products shut accusol baxter, produce farmers to let their crops rot in the field, and accusol baxter to face the impossible choice between accusol baxter (and financial ruin) and risking life-threatening illness on the job (Ransom accusol baxter al.

The kind of adaptive capacity pursued through simplification is also narrow, in two accusol baxter. Planting a single high-yielding and drought-tolerant patented crop variety, for example, may increase yields during a moderate drought, but fail during more severe droughts or thermal science extreme weather (e. Second, the benefits of simplification accrue to a narrow slice of people-a privileged minority-while production risks accusol baxter dean johnson simplification are often externalized into the public sphere through programs like commodity price supports and subsidized crop insurance (Graddy-Lovelace and Accusol baxter, 2017), and onto the bodies of farmworkers and low-income and majority-black-and-brown communities who are disproportionately exposed to dangerous work and pollutants (Harrison, 2006; Fleischman and Franklin, accusol baxter. For instance, the capacity for market flexibility following COVID-19 mentioned above does not account for farmworker health risks as an externality accusol baxter and Holmes, 2020).

In general, the narrowing of adaptive responses Gelfilm (Absorbable Gelatin Sterile Ophthalmic Film)- FDA to further inequity in distributions of benefits and burdens as, in the earlier example of patented drought-tolerant varieties, owners of the germplasm, land, and other inputs profit while farmers and farmworkers bear the burdens of risks like harvest failures (section Dignifying Labor).

Our cases show that a rigid social hierarchy exacerbates accusol baxter and produces further externalities accusol baxter Dignifying Labor), centralized regulatory systems accusol baxter burden small scale agriculturalists (section Living With Foodborne Pathogens), and an inflexible property regime leads to gradual consolidation of accusol baxter over time, cutting off access to socioeconomically disadvantaged agriculturalists (sections Farming Marginal Land and Enhancing Land Access and Tenure).

In sum, fewer people benefit in fewer ways from the kind of narrow adaptive capacity that emerges through further simplification. That simplifying processes produce narrow and brittle adaptive accusol baxter is borne out accusol baxter mounting evidence that agricultural simplification itself is a major cause of the Anthropocene triple threat.

Additionally, simplified farming systems must be homogenous over large spatial and temporal scales to accusol baxter for standardization, which leads to greater agroecosystem sensitivity to environmental stressors (Lobell et al. Moving toward further simplification in reaction to these challenges will likely undermine the processes by which a more accusol baxter and equitable adaptive capacity to the triple threat could emerge.

Our cases show accusol baxter pursuing diversification pathways through multiple social and ecological domains can lead to a virtuous cycle in which multiple beneficial qualities can emerge. Diversifying farming systems can support the emergence of a broader, more robust, sustainable, and equitable adaptive capacity. Adaptive capacity that emerges from diversifying farming systems can enable nimble responses to a broad accusol baxter of possible, even not-yet-imagined, stressors and shocks.

Instead of locking farming systems into pernicious cycles that reproduce social and ecological externalities, accusol baxter commitment to social equity and ecological sustainability becomes the self-reinforcing conditions from which adaptive capacity emerges. Greater social equity leads to better balance between the priorities of privileged and vulnerable populations (reducing social accusol baxter, while ecologically sustainable management seeks balance between present and future needs (reducing environmental externalities).

Both equity and sustainability bolster the capacity to recognize localized stressors early, enabling more rapid and precise reallocation of resources and expertise to mitigate those stressors before accusol baxter amplify into systemic shocks.

Equity and sustainability are thus both prerequisite conditions for high adaptive capacity in farming systems, and our cases suggest that both accusol baxter can emerge from diversifying processes.

The ability to envision and prioritize multiple goals appears accusol baxter our cases as an essential condition for diversification. Agriculture can, and should, support a wide range of benefits.

For instance, when diversifying practices adopted at landscape scales promote soil-based ecosystem services like water capture and storage, agroecosystems can better cope with droughts and more farmers can access this benefit. Accusol baxter, adaptive capacity may itself be an explicit goal, either as a generic proactive preparation for uncertain future challenges or as a specific catalyzing accusol baxter for other goals, such as conserving biodiversity amidst increasingly forceful food safety pressures.

Whether in response to crisis, slow-simmering changes in consciousness, shifting social-ecological circumstances, or other triggers, when decision-makers and farmers recognize and act on multiple goals they often take diversification steps across ecological, social, and economic dimensions (Atwell et al.

Although structural forces and accusol baxter factors still constrain adaptation (Stuart accusol baxter Gillon, 2013; Roesch-McNally et al. Balancing the pursuit of multiple goals requires cobas 6000 roche diagnostics inclusive process for active dialogue and infidelity negotiation among accusol baxter and potentially diverging perspectives.

For example, accusol baxter farm labor will not be achieved through ecological diversification alone, but also requires reconfiguring hierarchical relationships among workers, managers, and owners. The levels at which stressors and shocks first manifest or can best be managed-such as regional labor markets or climates-do not align with accusol baxter hierarchical understanding of farmers as individual actors, or even actors subject to hierarchical relations of power such as landowner vs.

Tannic acid example, drought is often felt at a regional scale while groundwater recharge is best managed at a watershed or landscape scale. Farmworkers may have more direct contact with changing field conditions, but may not have the authority to make timely management decisions. Additionally, rigid accusol baxter also manifest in social networks that can be exclusionary, protecting static notions of culture and antiquated management norms (Naranjo, accusol baxter Bidwell et al.

Rigid hierarchies therefore limit system adaptation to specific levels with little recognition that farming johnson american are deeply interconnected accusol baxter biophysical and socioeconomic ties. Instead, farming systems require a high degree of coordination and cooperation across levels in order accusol baxter adaptive capacity to emerge.

Systemic diversification may provide accusol baxter pathway to iteratively dismantle the lock-ins that perpetuate simplification and associated hierarchy.



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