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If a claim involving Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA empty name has a truth condition at all, it would have to be a condition that, like (7), incorporates the condition that determines reference, rather than one that, like (8), incorporates the referent itself. But Wittgenstein Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA drawn our attention to negative existentials, and we do have a grip on the sort of situations in which they would turn out to be true.

Now suppose, for a moment, we agree with Davidson (1967) that (i) when we state the truth condition of a sentence in the right way, Prezcobix (Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets)- FDA give its semantic value.

If the truth condition of (9a) cannot be stated as (9c), then Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA leaves (9b) as the remaining candidate for the semantic value of the sentence. So, one could distinguish the (compositional) semantic value of a sentence from its truth condition.

This is the approach of Donnellan (1974: 25), for whom the compositional semantic value of an uttered sentence is the proposition that it expresses-not quite its truth condition.

While the utterance is true if that proposition holds and false if it fails to hold, Donnellan also thinks it may be true or false even if no proposition is generated. Metalinguistic analyses of nonexistence statements face certain objections. The truth condition could then replace parochial reference to language with reference to sense.

We will now turn to a consideration of such a metalinguistic account of the meaning of names. In this case, the condition that serves for identification in context is not specific enough to determine the referent outright-there Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA of course many red things in existence other than the one I refer to.

As referring expressions, Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA can be seen to work in a similar way (compare Gray 2014: 216). This suggests that names might have a compositional semantics just like that of a definite description, where the determiner meaning combines with a property contributed Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA the nominal complement to generate the meaning of the overall phrase.

On the other hand, the metalinguistic property attributed to the proper nominal appears superfluous in accounting for the way a name identifies its referent to the audience. It Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Desoxyn)- FDA a familiar point that we should think twice before attributing to meaning an inference that requires nothing more than common sense (Grice 1975). One way of explicating having a name spelled A-l-i-c-e is to say that there is a linguistic item-a specific name with that spelling-referring to one.

Thus (12) says in effect that there are two individuals in the class referred to by such a name. This would be consistent with an account on which specific names (unlike proper nominals occurring in contexts like (12)) Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA not have a meaning, their reference being determined by use instead.

More generally, this explication treats the reference of specific names as the more basic notion, and the predicate meaning of the proper nominal as defined in terms of such reference. To think of names (not nominals) as having a metalinguistic meaning which then (partially) determines their reference, reverses this picture.

Instead of the metalinguistic meaning being explicated in terms of the reference of names, the reference of names would be explained Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA the help of the metalinguistic meaning. To avoid a theory in which the explanation goes in a circle, the metalinguistic predicate having a 500 calories diet spelled A-l-i-c-e must be explicated Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA terms other than those of the reference of names.

Fortunately, we already have the materials at hand to see how this could go. Back in Section 2. It would be quite natural to interpret a metalinguistic predicate as applying to someone on the basis of a pattern of attributions of a name, rather than on that of reference to them using that name. Even if name attribution is not the right way to ground metalinguistic predicates, any use theory, in attempting to explain the reference of a name in terms of (distinct) features of its use, will have to employ something of the sort.

In that sense, use theories and metalinguistic theories are in the same boat. The decision whether to grant a metalinguistic meaning to names appears to come down to what is basic and what is generated in the semantic theory. If the meaning of a name is generated from the metalinguistic meaning of the constituent proper nominal, then names will accordingly have a metalinguistic meaning (most likely Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA the form of a rule of use).

This is surely too quick; a nominal predicate, though semantically basic, Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA still count as a natural expression its well known that sleep is an important part of good health Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA metalinguistic property it denotes (see Johnson 2018), and the naturalness of the choice could explain the prevalence of the convention across languages and its ease of Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA. However, unless those basic resources include the references of names (and Gray 2017 argues that this is hardly a promising route), the metalinguistic theory is welcome to adopt the same thrift.

I will go over a little of the linguistic data that Apresoline (Hydralazine)- FDA appeared so far in the debate.



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