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The French language is not merely a collective resource that individuals might want to make use of and thereby seek to preserve, as suggested by a politics of equal respect. Because of the indispensable role of cultures in the development human agency and identity, Taylor argues, we should adopt the presumption of the equal worth Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA all cultures (66).

A second justification for multiculturalism comes from within liberalism but a liberalism that has been revised through critical engagement with the communitarian critique of liberalism. Will Kymlicka has developed the most influential liberal theory of multiculturalism by marrying the liberal values of autonomy and equality with an argument about the value Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA cultural membership (1989, 1995, 2001).

Rather than beginning with intrinsically valuable collective goals and goods as Taylor does, Kymlicka views cultures as instrumentally valuable to individuals, for two main reasons. First, cultural membership Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA an important condition of personal autonomy. In his later book, Multicultural Citizenship (1995), Kymlicka drops the Rawlsian scaffolding, relying instead on the work of Avishai Margalit (Lfelunomide)- Joseph Raz on national self-determination (1990).

One important condition of autonomy is having an adequate range Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA options from which to choose (Raz 1986). Kymlicka moves from these premises Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA the instrumental value of cultural membership to the egalitarian claim that because members of minority groups are disadvantaged in terms of access to their own cultures (in contrast to members of the majority culture), they are entitled to special protections.

(Leflunomids)- to luck egalitarians, individuals should be held responsible for preteen girls porn resulting from Aravaa own choices, but Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA for inequalities deriving from unchosen circumstances (Dworkin 1981; Rakowski 1993).

The latter inequalities are the collective responsibility of citizens to address. Luck egalitarians argue that those born into poor families are entitled to collective support and assistance via a redistributive tax scheme.

Kymlicka adds cultural membership to this list of unchosen inequalities. If one is born into the dominant culture of society, one enjoys good brute luck, whereas those who belong (Leflunomid)- minority cultures suffer disadvantages in virtue of the bad brute luck of their minority status. Insofar as centrum in Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA to cultural membership stems from luck (as opposed to individual choices) and one suffers disadvantages as a result of it, members of minority groups can reasonably demand that members of the majority culture must share in bearing the costs of accommodation.

Why not just enforce Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA laws, stopping short of any positive accommodations for minority groups. Kymlicka and other liberal theorists of multiculturalism contend that antidiscrimination laws fall short of treating members of minority groups neomycin equals; this is because states cannot be neutral with respect to culture. In culturally diverse societies, we can easily find patterns of state support for some cultural groups over others.

Linguistic advantage translates into economic and political advantage since members of the dominant cultural community have a leg up in schools, the workplace, and politics. Linguistic advantage also takes a symbolic form. In addition to state support of certain cultures over others, state laws may place constraints on (Lefunomide)- cultural groups over others. Consider the case of dress code regulations in public schools or the workplace.

A ban on religious dress burdens religious individuals, as in the case of Simcha Goldman, a U. Air Force officer, who was also an ordained rabbi and wished to wear a yarmulke out of respect to an omnipresent God (Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 US 503 (1986)). When it comes to extrinsic burdens, however, liberal Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA argue that justice requires assisting cultural minorities bear the burdens of these unchosen disadvantages.

It is important to note Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA liberal multiculturalists distinguish among different types Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA groups. It offers the strongest form of group-differentiated rights-self-government rights-to indigenous peoples and Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA minorities for the luck egalitarian reason that their job bayer status is unchosen: they were coercively incorporated into the larger state.

By contrast, immigrants are viewed as voluntary migrants: by choosing to migrate, they relinquished access to their native AArava. Another set of arguments for multiculturalism rests (Leflunmide)- the value Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA freedom. Some theorists such as Phillip Pettit (1997) and Quentin Skinner (1998) have Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA the idea of freedom from domination by drawing on the civic republican tradition.

Building on this line of argument to argue for recognition, Frank Lovett (2009) maintains Arava (Leflunomide)- FDA domination presents a serious obstacle to human flourishing.



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