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After a sufficient number of yes votes, a user is upgraded to a spotlight reviewer through what essentially is a popularity contest. As a result, their reviews are given more prominence.

Top reviews are those which receive the most helpful upvotes, usually gale they provide more detailed information about a product.

One potential way of improving rating and commenting systems is to weight such ratings according to the reputation of the dong quai (as done on Amazon, Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum, and Wikipedia). Reputation systems intend to achieve three things: foster good behavior, penalize bad behavior, and Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum the risk of harm to others as a result of bad behavior (Ubois, 2003).

Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum features are Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum reputation can rise and fall and that reputation is based on behavior rather than Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum connections, thus prioritizing engagement over popularity.

In addition, reputation systems do not have to use the true names of the participants but, to be effective and robust, they must be tied to an enduring identity infrastructure. Frishauf (2009) proposed a reputation system for peer review in which the review would be Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum by people of known reputation, thereby setting a quality threshold that could be Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum into any social review platform and automated (e.

Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum further problem with reputation systems is that having a single formula uses derive reputation leaves the system open to gaming, as rationally expected with almost any process that can be measured and quantified.

Gashler (2008) proposed a decentralized and secured system where each reviewer would digitally sign each paper, hence the digital projective test would link the review with the paper. Such a web of what is not bullying in the workplace and papers could be data mined to reveal information on the influence and connectedness of individual researchers within the research community.

Depending on how the data were mined, this could be used as a reputation system or web-of-trust system that would be resistant to gaming because it would specify no particular metric. The most popular site within Stack Exchange is Stack Overflow, a community of software developers and a place where professionals exchange problems, ideas, and solutions.

Stack Exchange works by having users publish a specific problem or question, and then others contribute to a discussion on that issue. This Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum is considered to be a form of dynamic publishing by some (Heller et al. The appeal Dopamine (Dopamine Hydrochloride)- FDA Stack Exchange is that threaded discussions are often brief, concise, and geared towards solutions, all in Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum typical Web Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum format.

Highly regarded answers are positioned towards the top of threads, with others concatenated beneath. Like the Amazon model of weighted ratings, voting in Stack Exchange is more of a process that controls relative visibility.

The result is a library of topical questions with high quality discussion threads and answers, developed by capturing the long tail of knowledge from communities of experts. The main distinction between this and scholarly publishing is that new material rarely is the focus of discussion threads.

However, the ultimate goal remains the same: to improve knowledge and understanding of a particular issue. As such, Stack Exchange is about creating self-governing communities and a public, collaborative knowledge exchange forum based on software (Begel et al. Some subject-specific platforms for research communities already exist that are similar to or based on Stack Exchange technology.

These include BioStars (biostars. PhysicsOverflow forms the counterpart forum to MathOverflow (Tausczik et al. Both have a reviews section to complement formal journal-led peer review, where peers can submit Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum (e.

Responses are divided into reviews and comments, and given a score based on votes for originality and accuracy. Similar to Reddit, there are moderators but these are democratically elected by the community itself.

Together, both have created successful open community-led collaboration and discussion platforms for their research disciplines. One of the key features of Stack Exchange is that it has an inbuilt community-based reputation system, karma, similar to that for Reddit. Identified peers rate or Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum the contributions of others and can indicate whether those contributions are positive (useful or informative) or negative.

Karma provides a point-based reputation system for individuals, based not just on the quantity of engagement with the platform and its peers alone, but also on the quality and relevance of those engagements, as assessed by the wider engaging community (stackoverflow. Peers have their status and moderation privileges within the platform upgraded as they gain reputation. Such automated privilege administration provides a strong social incentive for constructively engaging within the community.

Furthermore, peers who asked the original questions mark answers considered to be the most correct, thereby acknowledging the most significant contributions while providing a stamp of novartis s a. This has the additional consequence of reducing the strain of evaluation and information overload for other peers by facilitating more rapid decision making, a behavior based on simple cognitive heuristics (e.

Threads can also be closed once questions have been answered sufficiently, based on a community decision, which enables maximum gain of potential karma points. This terminates further contribution but ensures that the knowledge is captured for future needs. Karma and reputation can thus be achieved and incentivized by building and contributing to a growing community and providing knowledgeable and comprehensible answers on a specific topic.

Within this system, reputation points are distributed based on social activities that are akin to peer review, such as Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum questions, giving advice, providing feedback, sharing data, and generally improving the quality of work in the open.

Such processes ultimately have a Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum low barrier Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum entry, but also expose peer review to potential gamification through integration with a reputation engine, a social bias which proliferates through any technoculture (Belojevic et al.

An additional important vaccine of Stack Overflow is the acquisition of merit badges, which provide public stamps of group affiliation, experience, authority, identity and goal setting (Halavais et al. Stack Overflow also has a system of tag badges to attribute subject-level expertise, awarded once a peer achieves a certain voting score.

Together, these features open up a novel reputation system beyond traditional measurements based on publications and citations, that can also be used as an indication of expertise transferable beyond the platform itself. As such, a Stack Exchange model Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum increase the mobility of researchers who contribute in non-conventional ways (e. There is substantial scope in creating a reputation Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum that goes beyond traditional measurements Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum include social network influence and open peer-to-peer engagement.

Ultimately, this model can potentially transform the diversity of contributors to professional research and clinical pharmacology by katzung level the playing field for all types of formal contribution. Git is a free and open-source distributed version control system developed by the Linux community in 2005 (git-scm.

GitHub, launched in 2008, works as a Web-based Git service and has Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum the de facto social coding platform for collaborative and open source development and code sharing (Kosner, 2012; Thung et al.

Despite its capability for not just sharing code, but also executable papers that automatically knit together text, data, and analyses into a living document, the true power of GitHub appears to be acknowledged infrequently by academic researchers (Priem, 2013).

Software review penis and vagina an important part of software development, particularly for Methoxsalen Capsules (Oxsoralen-Ultra)- Multum efforts.

In addition, GitHub offers the ability to discuss specific issues, where multiple people can contribute to such a discussion, and discussions can refer to code segments albenza code changes and vice versa (but note Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum GitHub can also be used for non-code content). GitHub also includes a variety of notification options for both users and project repositories. Users can watch repositories or files of interest and be notified of any new issues or commits (updates), and someone who has discussed an issue can also be notified of any new discussions of that same issue.

Issues can also be tagged (labelled in a manner that allows grouping of multiple issues nucleus ambiguus the same tag), and assigned to one or more participants, who are then responsible for that issue.

Another item that GitHub Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum is a checklist, a set of items that have a binary state, which can be used to implement and store the status Astelin (Azelastine Hydrochloride)- Multum a set of actions. GitHub also allows users to form organizations as a way of grouping contributors together to manage access to different repositories.

All contributions are made public as a way for users to obtain merit. Prestige at GitHub can be further measured quantitatively as a social product through the star-rating system, which is derived from the number of followers or watchers and the number of times a repository has been forked (i.

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