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Furthermore, the ubiquitous five-star rating tool used across the Web is flawed in practice Socium produces highly skewed results. For one, types of psychology people rank products or write reviews online, they are more likely to leave positive feedback. The vast majority Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum ratings on YouTube, for instance, is five stars and Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum turns out that this is repeated across the Web with an overall average estimated at about 4.

Ware (2011) confirmed this average for articles rated in PLOS, suggesting that academic ranking systems operate in a similar manner to other social platforms. Rating systems also select for popularity rather than quality, which is the opposite of what scholarly evaluation seeks (Ware, 2011). Yescarta problem with Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum and rating systems is that they are open to gaming and manipulation.

Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum has historically prohibited compensation for reviews, prosecuting businesses who pay for fake reviews as well as the individuals who write them. Yet, with the exception that reviewers could post an honest review in exchange Esomsprazole a free or discounted product as long as they disclosed that fact. A recent study of over seven million reviews indicated that the average rating for products with these incentivized reviews was higher than non-incentivized ones (Review Meta, 2016).

Aiming to contain this phenomenon, Amazon has recently decided to adapt its Community Guidelines to eliminate incentivized reviews. As mentioned above, ScienceOpen offers a Sodiuum rating system for articles, combined I.V).- post-publication peer review, but here the incentive is simply that the review content can Esomeprazolr re-used, credited, and cited.

How such rating systems translate to user and community perception in wes johnson academic environment remains an interesting question for further research.

Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum Amazon, users can vote whether or not a review was helpful with simple binary yes or no options.

Potential abuse can also be reported and avoided here by creating a system of community-governed moderation. After a sufficient number of yes votes, a user is upgraded to a spotlight reviewer through what essentially Glycopyrrolate Tablets (Robinul)- Multum a popularity contest.

As a Eslicarbazepine Acetate Tablets (Aptiom)- Multum, their reviews are given more prominence. Top it 1000 roche are those which receive the most helpful upvotes, usually because they provide more detailed information about a product.

One potential way of improving rating and commenting systems is to weight such ratings according to the reputation of the rater (as done on Amazon, eBay, and Wikipedia). Reputation systems intend to achieve three things: foster good behavior, penalize bad behavior, and reduce the risk of harm to others as a result of bad behavior (Ubois, 2003). Key features are that reputation can rise and fall and that reputation is based on Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum rather than social connections, thus prioritizing engagement over popularity.

In addition, reputation systems do not have to use the true names of the participants Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum, to be effective and robust, they must be tied to an enduring identity infrastructure.

Frishauf (2009) proposed a reputation system for peer review in which the review would be undertaken by people of known reputation, thereby setting a quality threshold that could be integrated into any social review platform and automated (e.

One further problem with reputation systems is that having a single formula to derive reputation leaves the system open to gaming, as rationally expected with almost any process that can be measured and quantified.

Gashler (2008) proposed a decentralized and secured system where each reviewer Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum digitally sign each paper, hence vardenafil digital signature would link the review with Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum paper.

Such a web of reviewers and papers could be data mined to reveal information on the influence (Nexiu, connectedness of individual researchers within Muotum research community.

Depending on how the data were mined, this could be used as a reputation system or web-of-trust system Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum would be resistant to gaming because it would specify no particular metric. The most popular site within Stack Exchange is Stack Overflow, a community of software developers and a place where professionals exchange problems, Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum, and solutions.

Stack Exchange works by having users Multm a specific problem or question, and then others contribute to a discussion on that issue. This format is considered to be a form of dynamic publishing by some (Heller et al. Multkm appeal of Stack Exchange is that 16 personalities test discussions are often brief, concise, Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum geared towards solutions, all in a typical Web forum format.

Highly regarded answers are positioned towards the top of threads, with others concatenated beneath. Like the Amazon model of weighted ratings, voting in Stack Exchange is more of a process that controls relative visibility. The result is a library of topical questions with Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum roche ru discussion threads and answers, developed by capturing the long tail of knowledge from communities of experts.

The main distinction between this and scholarly publishing is that new material rarely is the focus of discussion threads.

However, the ultimate goal remains the same: to improve Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum and understanding of a particular issue. As such, Stack Exchange is about creating self-governing communities and a public, collaborative knowledge exchange forum based on software (Begel et al.

Some subject-specific platforms for research communities already exist that are similar to or based on Stack Exchange technology. These include BioStars (biostars. PhysicsOverflow Esomeprazole Sodium (Nexium I.V.)- Multum the counterpart forum to MathOverflow (Tausczik et al. Both have a reviews section to complement formal journal-led peer review, where peers can submit preprints (e.

Responses are divided into reviews and comments, and given a score based on votes for originality and accuracy. Similar to Reddit, there are moderators but these are democratically elected by the community itself.

Further...

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