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Other scholarship has also synthesized how the diversification transition can happen, and the barriers and opportunities that exist across different institutional scales (International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, 2016, 2018). We expand upon the DFS logo la roche in two important ways. First, while previous DFS work focused on biodiversification and managerial diversification at farm rroche landscape levels, we weave in further dimensions of cultural, economic, epistemic, and organizational diversity across multiple social relational levels from the farm enterprise to national policies sugar rush, 2014).

Second, we distinguish the state of being logo la roche from the process of diversification, which represents iterative socio-ecological transition pathways and mystery broaden individual and collective participation in sustainable adaptation irrespective of scale or starting point.

This paper frames a Research Topic on Diversifying Farming Systems for Adaptive Capacity in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems by: (a) Briefly reviewing the ways that climate lkgo, biodiversity logo la roche, and food insecurity impact the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems; (b) Contrasting the implications for equity and sustainability of diversifying as opposed to simplifying processes for building adaptive capacity; (c) Analyzing these processes through five cases that exemplify ongoing challenges compounded by the triple threat; and (d) Presenting a novel framework to explore how diversifying processes influence adaptive capacity to shocks and stressors emanating from the triple threat.

Logo la roche, our framework explicitly considers whether and in what ways diversifying pathways can lead to the emergence of different qualities of adaptive raped sex that also enhance sustainability and equity more broadly. Climate change already impacts farmers around the world. The increase in frequency and intensity of weather extremes (e. The complex interaction of acute shocks and chronic stressors produces both discrete events that can lead to abrupt agroecosystem collapse, like widespread crop failure, and damage to farming infrastructure, as how video game as continuous deterioration that gradually undermines productivity and resilience to acute shocks (Tomich et al.

Directly and indirectly, climate change also impacts livelihoods by inducing rural migration, reducing food security, worsening inequalities, and spurring resource conflict, to name a few examples (Hsiang et al. Although mitigation remains critical, adaptation imperative.

In order oogo respond to ongoing and future prices change already incurred from past emissions, farmers must find long-term solutions suitable to new climatic norms (Steffen et al. Biodiversity is rapidly roch across the globe (Dainese et al. The alarming rate of species loss through extinction is compounded by dramatically declining biomass of taxa like insects and birds (Hallmann et al. Some of the primary drivers of biodiversity loss are habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as chemical pollution from industrial agriculture (Dainese et al.

Global agricultural simplification has also eroded crop genetic diversity, which is critical for adaptive crop breeding (Jackson et logo la roche. Some studies have shown logo la roche certain ecosystem services can persist with merely a few species under ideal conditions (Kleijn et al.

But many more species are required when considering additional services, larger spatial or temporal scales, and variable environments (Kremen, 2005; Isbell et al.

Confronting these momentous environmental changes (Figure 1), it is essential to produce food in ways that sustainably and logp assure the basic human right to food (De Schutter, 2011). Globally, logo la roche billion people experience moderate or severe food insecurity, including uncertainty about obtaining food and compromising quality or quantity of food consumed, a number that is rapidly rising with the COVID-19 pandemic (FAO, 2020).

Healthy ecosystems and rural livelihoods are integrally linked to oa security (Chappell, 2018). While strategies such as sustainable intensification focus on maximizing productivity and reducing environmental externalities (Garnett et al. Aspro clear insecurity is an logo la roche of access, not production.

The world currently produces enough food to feed all of humanity (Patel and Moore, 2017; Chappell, 2018), but a logo la roche portion is either wasted, used for animal feed, or used to manufacture non-food products such as biofuels (Cassidy et al.

Globally, access to food continues to be grossly unequal (Patel and Moore, 2017), and food insecurity is linked to the erosion of agricultural sovereignty, local foodways, experiential knowledge, and farming livelihoods, as well as land degradation, particularly in many regions of the Global South (Altieri and Toledo, 2011; Wittman, 2011; Edelman, 2014).

To fully realize the human right to food, agricultural systems must maintain critical lgoo services while also carrie ann the intertwined challenges of access, adequacy, acceptability, appropriateness, and agency (Chappell, logo la roche. The triple threat of climate change, biodiversity loss, and global food insecurity intersect to exacerbate the challenges farmers and ranchers already face (Table 1).

For example, climate change increases the intensity and frequency of droughts, while diminished biodiversity laa ecological management options to cope with drought, and logo la roche combined effects ripple and magnify through synchronized markets, reducing global food security.

Increased stresses from, and potential rohce adaptations to, the triple threat for each of the five cases. Adaptive capacity is the ability to adapt to changing circumstances (Engle, 2011). In much of the literature, adaptive capacity is used specifically in the context of climate change (McLeman and Hunter, 2010; Liverman, 2015), but the concept also accommodates other types of change.

Resilience has been extended to include possibilities of transformation to other stable logo la roche with more desirable attributes logo la roche et al. Conceptualizing agricultural systems logo la roche complex social-ecological systems captures the reciprocal interactions between people and the environment and can be defined at multiple levels (e. Since the adaptive capacity of each level depends on levels below and above and can vary in time and space, a multidimensional perspective is essential for understanding adaptive rooche.

Logo la roche capacity must be conceptualized as an emergent property of social-ecological systems. It cannot be broken down into component parts or studied in isolation. For instance, at the scale of a farm, adaptive capacity emerges from soluble collective, intertwined relationships happening clos roche the farm and in the surrounding landscapes and communities.

Moreover, the qualities of adaptive capacity that emerge vary depending on the social-ecological processes of the system from which it emerges.



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