Overweight definition

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Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine overweight definition channel blocker, was once one of the most widely used medications for hypertension, but safety and tolerability concerns along overweight definition the introduction of new classes of antihypertensive medications and an increasing pool of data showing mortality benefit overweight definition other classes caused nifedipine to fall out of favor.

More recently, long-acting formulations Oxycodone Extended-release Capsules (Xtampza ER)- FDA developed and made available to clinicians. These newer formulations were designed to address many of the concerns raised by earlier formulations of nifedipine. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted comparing long-acting nifedipine to many of the more commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications.

This review will address the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and the available clinical trial data on long-acting nifedipine and summarize its role in the management of hypertension. Keywords: nifedipine, calcium channel blockers, hypertension This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited.

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Adults: Starting dose is 10 mg P. Usual effective dosage range is 10 to 20 mg t. Some patients may need up to 30 mg q. Or, 30 to 60 mg (extended-release) P. Gradually increased at 7- to 14-day intervals or more frequently, if needed. Maximum dose is overweight definition mg daily for capsules, 120 mg for extended-release tablets. Adults: Initially, 30 to 60 mg P. Adjust dosage overweight definition 7- to 14-day intervals based on patient congestion and response.

Maximum dose is 120 mg daily. Pharmacodynamics Antianginal action: Nifedipine dilates systemic arteries, resulting in decreased total peripheral resistance and modestly decreased systemic blood pressure with a slightly increased heart rate, decreased afterload, and increased cardiac index.

Reduced afterload and the subsequent decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption probably account for the value of nifedipine in treating chronic overweight definition angina. Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver. Excretion: Excreted in urine and feces as inactive metabolites. Elimination overweight definition is 2 to 5 hours.

Contraindications and precautions Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug. Use cautiously in elderly patients and patients with heart failure or hypotension. Use extended-release form cautiously in patients with GI narrowing. Beta blockers: May worsen angina, heart overweight definition, and hypotension. Cimetidine: Overweight definition decrease nifedipine metabolism. Digoxin: May increase serum digoxin levels. Monitor serum digoxin level.

Fentanyl: May cause excessive hypotension. Hypotensive drugs: May precipitate excessive hypotension. Phenytoin: May increase phenytoin levels. Melatonin: Interferes with overweight definition effect of nifedipine. Grapefruit juice: Increases bioavailability of drug.

Advise patient to avoid taking drug with grapefruit juice. Adverse reactionsCNS: dizziness, light-headedness, headache, weakness, syncope, nervousness, fever. CV: peripheral edema, hypotension, palpitations, heart failure, MI, flushing. GI: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal discomfort. Respiratory: dyspnea, cough, pulmonary edema. May decrease potassium level. Overdose and treatment Effects of overdose are extensions of pharmacologic effects, primarily sun pharmaceutical by careprost vasodilation and hypotension.

Treatment includes such basic support measures as hemodynamic and overweight definition monitoring. If patient needs blood pressure support with a vasoconstrictor, norepinephrine may be given. Elevate limbs and correct any fluid deficit.

ALERT Warn patient not to switch brands. Reassure patient that this effect is temporary. Orthostatic blood pressures should be monitored. Its main uses are as an antianginal (especially in Prinzmetal's angina) and antihypertensive, although a large number of other indications have recently been found for this agent, overweight definition as Raynaud's phenomenon, premature labor, and painful spasms of the esophagus in cancer and tetanus patients.



22.08.2019 in 07:05 Gardat:
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24.08.2019 in 03:56 Dit:
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27.08.2019 in 07:18 Jugis:
Very well.