Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum

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These synapse in ganglia (Pro,ethazine along the aorta (the celiac, aorticorenal, superior, or inferior mesenteric ganglia) with postganglionic. Again, postganglionics follow the blood vessels. Sympathetic postganglionics from the sympathetic chain can go back to the spinal nerves (via gray rami communicans) to be distributed to somatic tissues of the limbs and body walls. For example, the somatic response to sympathetic activation will result in sweating, constriction of blood vessels in the skin, dilation of vessels in muscle and in piloerection.

Damage to sympathetic nerves to the head results in slight constriction Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum the pupil, slight ptosis, and loss of sweating on that side of the head (called Horner syndrome).

This can happen anywhere along the course of the nerve pathway including the upper thoracic spine and nerve roots, the apex of the lung, the neck or the carotid plexus of postganglionics.

Parasympathetic clit amputation arise with cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X, as well as from the sacral segments S2-4.

Therefore, they have been termed the "craniosacral outflow. Parasympathetics in cranial nerve VII synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion (lacrimation) or the submandibular ganglion (salivation), while those in cranial nerve IX synapse Plaih)- the otic ganglion (salivation from parotid gland). The vagus nerve follows a long course to supply the thoracic and abdominal organs up to the level of the distal transverse colon, synapsing in ganglia within the organ walls. The pelvic parasympathetics, which appear as the pelvic splanchnic nerves, activate bladder contraction and also Hydrocchloride lower abdominal and pelvic organs.

The myelin sheath enhances impulse conduction. Because nerves are metabolically active tissues, they require nutrients, supplied by blood vessels called the vasa nervorum. The sensory and motor cell bodies are in different locations, and therefore, a nerve cell body disorder typically affects either the sensory or motor component but rarely both.

Damage to the myelin sheath (demyelination) slows nerve conduction. The hallmark of acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy is severe Prometbazine weakness with minimal atrophy. Because the vasa nervorum do not reach the center of a nerve, centrally located fascicles are most vulnerable to vascular disorders (eg, vasculitis, ischemia). The distal two-thirds of a limb is affected most.

Initially, deficits tend to be asymmetric because the vasculitic or ischemic process is random. However, multiple infarcts may later coalesce, causing symmetric deficits (multiple mononeuropathy). Toxic-metabolic or genetic disorders usually begin symmetrically. Immune-mediated processes may be symmetric or, Promethazzine in rapidly evolving processes, asymmetric.

First affected are the smaller fibers (because they have greater metabolic requirements) at the most distal part of the nerve. Then, axonal degeneration slowly ascends, producing the characteristic distal-to-proximal Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum of symptoms Hydrohcloride sensory loss, weakness).

After axonal damage, the fiber regrows within the Schwann cell tube at about 1 mm per day once the pathologic process ends. However, regrowth may be misdirected, causing aberrant innervation (eg, of fibers in the wrong muscle, of a touch receptor at the wrong site, or of a temperature instead of a touch receptor). Regeneration is virtually impossible when the cell body dies and is unlikely when the axon is completely lost. Reflexes are quick, involuntary, stereotyped reactions of peripheral effectors to stimulation.

A spinal reflex is made up of a reflex arc, including somatic receptors, afferent nerve fibers, interneurons, efferent nerve fibers and skeletal muscles. The muscle Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum is a stretch receptor located in muscle. It is a cigar-shaped organ containing 3-12 modified muscle fibers wrapped in a fibrous capsule. Muscle spindles have 3 types of nerve fibers: Primary afferent, secondary afferent, and gamma motor neurons.

When a muscle is stretched, it contracts to maintain tone. This is the stretch (myotatic) reflex. Stretch reflexes involve specific muscles and sometimes feed back to a set of Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum and antagonists. These reflexes are important in coordinating vigorous and precise movements.

The tendon reflex (knee jerk) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex arc. For reflexes like the knee jerk to work, reciprocal inhibition of antagonistic muscles must occur simultaneously. Flexor reflexes are important when a limb must be pulled away from harm. These types of reflexes involve a polysynaptic reflex arc, a pathway in which signals travel over many synapses on their way back to the muscle. Golgi tendon organs are proprioceptors located at the junction of a muscle and its tendon.

Promethazine HCl Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup Plain)- Multum tendon organs produce an inhibitory response called the Golgi tendon reflex when muscle contracts too tightly. This prevents damage to the tendon. Before the formation of the nervous system in the embryo, 3e hematoma cell layers become differentiated.

The innermost layer, the Multuum, gives rise to the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs, and the liver. The mesoderm gives rise to the muscle, connective tissues, and the vascular system.

The third and outer most layer, the ectoderm, formed of columnar epithelium, gives Multjm to the entire nervous system and skin.

During the third week of development, the ectoderm on the dorsal surface of the embryo between the primitive knot and the buccopharyngeal membrane becomes thickened to form the neural plate. The plate, which is pear shaped and wider cranially, develops a longitudinal neural groove.

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