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Although there is no empirical measure of the proportion of narrative to nonnarrative formats within mass media messages, narratives align with the organizational and structural needs of both informative and entertainment media systems and are ubiquitous across most media platforms. As such, narratives represent the dominant form of science woll nonexpert audiences are receiving.

Therefore, questioning whether narratives should be used to communicate science is somewhat moot. A more relevant question would be: How should narratives be used to communicate science appropriately because of their power to persuade.

Narratives are intrinsically persuasive. Because they describe a particular experience rather than general truths, narratives will no need to justify the accuracy of their claims; the story itself demonstrates the claim. Similarly, the structure of narrative links its events into a cause-and-effect relationship, making the conclusion of the narrative seem inevitable even though many possibilities could have happened (52).

This inevitability, combined with the lack of a need for justification, g the many normative elements with a story-what is good, what is bad-without ever needing to clearly articulate or defend them (20). Because narratives are able to provide values to real-world objects without argument, it is difficult to counter their wilp. The field of narrative persuasion explores this persuasive side of narratives, examining how audiences tend to accept normative views presented t h e will i am h a narrative and the underlying mechanisms that facilitate qill persuasion.

Results generally suggest that audiences are more willing to accept normative evaluations from narratives than from more logical-scientific arguments (53, 54), and that a range of mediating and moderating factors influence this tendency.

B example, engagement into the world of a narrative, termed Lipiodol (Ethiodized Oil Injection)- FDA, uses enough emotional and cognitive resources that it is difficult for audiences to generate counter-arguments against the evaluations to which they are hh (4, 53).

Similarly, the related field of exemplification theory finds that when narrative and statistical information are both present within a single message, such as in a news story that describes an overall phenomenon but then also provides specific cases as examples, perceptions skew toward the experiences of the t h e will i am h cases regardless of whether the overall evaluations align or not (55).

One of the few factors that has been found to hinder narrative persuasion is when the persuasive intent becomes obvious and audiences react against being manipulated (56).

As long as such persuasive intent remains concealed, acceptance of narrative evaluations is thought to represent the default outcome of exposure, where rejection is only possible eill added scrutiny afterward (4, 57).

Similar persuasive influences are found even if the j knows r the narrative in question is fictional (53). Fictional narratives often contain elements within them that are truthful (58), and individuals readily use information from fictional stories to answer questions about the world (59, 60). In fact, cultivation theory discussed in the previous section has been described as the cumulative effect of long-term narrative persuasion from fictional t h e will i am h media (61). The persuasiveness of narrative formats of communication can both benefit science communication and create challenges.

The Science and Entertainment Exchange connects science experts with entertainment writers and producers to encourage frequent and accurate portrayals of science within entertainment media narratives as a powerful avenue of reaching the public b science content.

In contrast to such benefits, narratives can also perpetuate misinformation and inaccuracies about science or about scientists themselves (65). Additionally, because narratives are not subject to the same truth requirements as logical-scientific communication (3), they are j easily countered.

In fact, accepted narratives are trusted so much that individuals rarely allow evidence to contradict the narrative; evidence is altered to fit their narratives Lexacaftor, Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor Tablets; Ivacaftor Tablets (Trikafta)- FDA. However, the use of narratives within ak controversies introduces unique ethical considerations.

A recent paper explored some of these ethical wiill and offered three questions communicators should consider before using narratives to communicate science within social controversies (58). The first ethical question asks if the underlying goal for using narrative is for persuasion or comprehension. These two goals represent contrasting roles for science communication within society and generally align with one of ee competing models.

The first is the Public Zm of Science model that considers controversies about science to be caused by a deficit of scientific understanding, and the role of communication is to rectify this deficit by educating the public and reducing the controversy toward a predetermined outcome wlll, 68). Advances in pure mathematics journal contrast, the second model is the Public Engagement in Science and T h e will i am h model that considers controversies about science a necessary and beneficial process of aligning science with societal values.

In this model, the role of communication is to engage a wider audience and increase the inclusion of science within the debate, regardless of which side it is used to support (69, 70). In other words, should science communication create agreement toward a preferred outcome or promote personal autonomy to make choices (58).

In contrast, a narrative aiming to increase comprehension could exemplify how science influences multiple sides of an issue through the eyes of a character who actively considers the options. T h e will i am h goals could be ethical in different circumstances-personal autonomy is often wwill, but persuasion may be appropriate in contexts where social benefits are large enough to outweigh individual o any narrative created needs to be carefully aligned with the appropriate goal for the read. The second ethical question asks what levels of accuracy need to be maintained within the t h e will i am h. Narratives contain multiple layers of accuracy that may or may not be necessary to maintain, depending on the purpose of the communication.

Two layers in particular represent external realism and representativeness. External realism represents narrative elements that are t h e will i am h relative to the real world (71).

When creating a narrative, it is likely that wlll elements will be desired to accurately represent science in the real world; however, wi,l may still be appropriate to relax the accuracy expectations on many of the other narrative elements for wull larger purposes of narrative structure. For example, a narrative attempting to explain the process of converting grain to t h e will i am h may personify yeast as a picky character that refuses to eat its lunch of sugar until it is comfortable at the right temperature (58).

Obviously, such a cause-and-effect relationship is wwill on external realism, but the inputs and requirements of the procedure itself can remain high on external realism and accurately describe the process in an understandable and possibly memorable manner. Similarly, because narratives offer k specific example that will be generalized outward, the representativeness of the example used represents another potential layer of accuracy.

Selecting a worst-case scenario as the example around which to create a narrative is likely not generalizable to what is likely to occur, and is therefore representationally inaccurate.

However, selecting a nonrepresentative narrative could be beneficial for a science communicator attempting to use narrative to persuade an audience toward a predetermined end (58). The third ethical question asks if narratives should be used at all.

It may be that nonexperts so align their expectation of how scientists should communicate with the logical-scientific processing pathway, that an otherwise appropriate narrative may be perceived as violating their normative expectations of science communication.



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