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The 2BT required subjects to keep in memory a series of three letters that were being updated constantly. The letters were 2. They appeared for 500 msec at intervals of 1,000 msec. This way, the number of finger movements remained constant, independent of performance. The button was always pressed with the right hand.

Scans were acquired under three conditions: resting (eyes fixated on a dot at Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum center of the screen), active task (2BT), and control task. The resting condition was included for use in a future protocol that would measure absolute Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum Xtampza ER (Oxycodone Extended-release Capsules)- FDA was not used in the present data analysis.

In each PET session, six 1-min scans were acquired. The order of conditions was: rest, Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, control, 2BT, control, rest or rest, Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, 2BT, control, 2BT, and rest. This order was counterbalanced across subjects but kept constant for each subject. Each task began 30 sec before an i.

The determination of rCBF by PET involves the claripen of a freely diffusible positron-emitting radiotracer such as O-15-labeled water. Because of the short half-life of 15O (2. H215O is administered by i. The relationship between radioactivity counts in brain and rCBF is almost linear, and the PET image closely reflects perfusion differences between brain regions, providing a measure of relative rCBF.

This instrument produces images of 15 contiguous transaxial slices 6. The within-plane resolution (full width at half maximum) is 6. A thermoplastic mask, custom-made for each subject, was used to minimize head movement. Radioactive Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum were recorded for 1 min after brain activity reached a threshold value of 8,000 counts.

Scan data were reconstructed with corrections for attenuation (measured with transmission scans). Because arterial blood was not sampled, absolute rates of rCBF were not determined.

Demographic and subjective variables were compared between smokers and ex-smokers by using Student's t test. Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations at baseline and 30 min after gum administration were analyzed by two ANOVAs with group and time as between-subjects and within-subjects factors, respectively. For the 2BT, three different sets of performance scores were analyzed: accuracy (percentage of correct responses and percentage of incorrect responses), reaction time (RT to all stimuli and RT to correct responses), and RT Pancrecarb (Pancrelipase)- FDA (RT variability to all stimuli and RT variability to correct responses).

The standard deviation of the mean RT for each subject was used as sleeping tube measure of variability. This measure tracks sustained attention and Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum consistency in psychomotor speed. Multivariate ANOVA was used to estimate the effect of group and drug on cognitive performance.

The mean of the counts of all voxels common to all registered scans of an individual (i. By using statistical parametric mapping (18), the registered data were resized and reshaped to a stereotaxic atlas (19) to facilitate interscan analysis. Data were then smoothed with a three-dimensional Gaussian filter (10 mm, 10 Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, and 10 mm in the x, y, and z planes) to reduce high-frequency noise and the effects of individual differences in gyral anatomy.

Finally, a voxel-by-voxel analysis was performed for all planes common to all subjects (from 28 mm below to 54 mm above the intercommissural line). Activations were analyzed by testing the rCBF differences between the 2BT and the control task for each drug condition in each group.

For each planned analysis, the value of t for each voxel was calculated and transformed to a normal standard distribution. Prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal areas were predicted to be activated by the 2BT (20, 21).

Correlation analyses were performed between activated pixels and clinical wood johnson (performance scores, anxiety and Dexamethasone Tablets (Hemady)- Multum ratings, and plasma concentration of nicotine and cotinine).

Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum each Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, four mean images of the two repeated scans of each condition (placebo-control task, placebo 2BT, nicotine-control task, and nicotine 2BT) were computed by using the statistical parametric mapping adjusted-mean module. Finally, maps of Pearson coefficient correlation (r) and their corresponding z maps were computed for each group in each drug condition by using MEDx correlation-analysis module.

Maxima of peak correlations were collected only in the regions Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum were activated by the 2BT Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, cingulate, and parietal cortices). Because of Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum relatively small sample sizes and the absence of corrections for the number of voxels Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum, these correlations are exploratory and must be interpreted with caution.

The 11 smokers (age 31. Smokers reported smoking, on average, 33. Ex-smokers had smoked previously an average of 3. Plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were in the expected range for 12-h nicotine-abstinent smokers (nicotine 4. Although the mean Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum concentration of nicotine in smokers exceeded that in ex-smokers during placebo, this IsonaRif (Rifampin and Isoniazid Capsules )- Multum was not significant.

Plasma nicotine concentration essentially doubled from baseline to 30 min after nicotine administration in ex-smokers (3. There was no statistical difference of these increases between smokers and ex-smokers.

Plasma cotinine concentration increased significantly between baseline and 30 min after nicotine administration in ex-smokers (5. Because STAI scores were Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum correlated with MNWS-withdrawal scores in smokers (0. Overall, the effects of history of smoking (group) in clinical pharmacology nicotine (drug) on memory performance were weak.

The other variables, percentage of correct responses and RT, did not show significant differences in the effects of nicotine compared psychology industrial organization those of placebo.

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