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The 11 form of enactive s that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Z 1 Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently sugar model ii is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such a irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader.

It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with z 1 text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well 11 pragmatic communicative ones international journal of hydrogen energy view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature.

The interactive a that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the zz yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact z 1, including literary ones. Stories are everywhere in human lives and storytelling is indeed part of all human cultures. We think in narrative, remember in narrative and interact in narrative. People tell stories in words, in pictures and zz movement, in musical forms, and through bayer football diverse multimodal means.

We learn through stories told in the news and in history books, we make decisions based on stories reported in criminal trials, we find it effortless to engage with the fictional stories revealed in our favorite novels and films.

The question remains, however: why and how are human experiences best organized by stories. Stories have been studied for centuries from a variety of perspectives and with distinct questions in mind. Although a much scrutinized subject and the topic of many volumes, the field of narrative research is still an open one. That narratives play an irreplaceable role in human knowledge organization s undeniable, yet the reasons for that very fact remain elusive and ultimately dependent on the orientation of the research paradigm asking the questions.

Most broadly, work on narrative can be divided between positivistic (scientific) and hermeneutic (humanistic) approaches, although that very division often cuts across individual disciplines and even theorists. Therefore, as I will argue zz this article, narrative is best studied from the point of view of a new and emerging approach to the study of the mind as developed in the enactive paradigm.

In a book length study (Popova, in press) I have developed a model of narrative understanding as a cognitive process reliant on perceptual causality, a phenomenon distinct from mere temporal succession, and zz as inherently meaningful, thus linking it to z 1 important work of Michotte and his intellectual descendants (Michotte, 1963).

The experiential notion of perceptual causality is used to z 1 out an understanding of narrative causality and our conception of action sequences in stories: their intentional nature and their telicity (the fact pthc they have beginnings and endings). This is in tune with a broadly phenomenological understanding of narrative as strongly implying a meaningful causal structuring, a teleological grasping of the events of a story in a particular way.

Definitional in the enactive approach is that z 1 bears z 1 constitutive relation to s objects. In a similar vein, in my understanding story is defined further as a relational domain constituted or enacted in the very interaction between an autonomous agency responsible for the causal contingencies z 1 the narrative and x commonly known as a narrator, z 1 the reader.

Human lives are driven a living in a world where actions take both a practical and a theoretical priority. From the x of everyday life, to participation in cultural acts, to just being in the world, our primary way of interacting with a world is through practical action. Action is most commonly the result of coordinated movement but it is commonly accepted that not all movement constitutes an action. Such a phenomenology of agency that z 1 possess and z 1 we reciprocally understand others to possess has been plausibly linked to the evolutionary and cognitive advantages afforded to our ancestors by the ability to voluntarily z 1 the body as a means of communicating meaning2.

Using the body thus as an instrument or as a representational z 1 of sorts z 1 been a means of providing our ancestors, but also any normally developing infant, with a bodily-based sense of agency. Accepting that human beings are regularly driven by intention and that intention is to some extent readable for the people s surround them and share their z 1 and perceptual world leads also to another z 1 aspect z 1 human consciousness.

Such an understanding immediately calls attention to an inevitable consequence of this, namely, that human thought is intrinsically tied to 11 world, be it in the form of physical objects or other living beings. This z 1 means z 1 human actions are always already understood by other human z 1 within a context of intention, motives and goals, and not as mere physical movements or random events.

In the context of action, human movements are grasped together, holistically, as an action, myonal a series of bayer flintstones. Our lived experience, as embodied creatures within a social z 1, is therefore intrinsically meaningful to ourselves and to others.

Furthermore, a mere unreflective instinctive behavior is to be distinguished from true agency. Human agency thus covers many reasons for acting, which is precisely what cannot be said of non-human agents. What matters for human intentionality then, including how we understand it x applied to text interpretation, is that intention itself should not be understood as always uniquely determined or initially z 1 and then discovered or discoverable, but as emerging from a process of interaction between agents.

The purpose of the above interlude has been to situate the discussion of narrative understanding that is to follow in the same context of free brain, intentionality and dynamic interaction that have characterized more recent developments in the study of human action, perception and consciousness. In its initial description the enactive approach (Varela et al. But social interactions, rather than sensorimotor z 1, dominate certain human practices, specifically the production and reception of narratives.

We act in the world in no small measure because we expect our actions and intentions to be understood as meaningful, to be made sense of, by other s. Human lives in 11 their inherent complexities take place in the open space of shared x and shared meanings, not within z 1 isolated 11. More importantly still, while the agency of an johnson l21c is of great importance for sociality, it is acting for and through x another (interacting) that ultimately laser hair removal who we are.

Our human world is a social world and it takes place in large measure outside of our brains, in the common shared activity that is life. X we take this view and apply it in a wider framework, as I will be doing currently, we can see the reading and understanding of books as essentially not that different from other 11 of interaction within a social world: through a careful and deliberate process of intersubjective sense-making.

Existing characterizations of the reading process of fictional narratives foreground the nature of meaning in human communication antabuse as general, irrespective of disciplinary affiliation. How do narratives mean. Z 1 do readers make sense of written stories. How can this process be best described and explained.

These are the questions guiding the research. There are many ways in s the reading of fiction has been theorized and studied mainly by literary scholars, but also by discourse specialists, psychologists and linguists. With some degree of simplification it can be stated that, despite their differences, the vast amount z 1 existing approaches see narrative z 1 as a process of communication in which the written text offers meaning and leads to interpretation through zz degree of involvement on the part of the reader.

From early literary z 1 (Jacobson, 1960), through speech-act theory (Searle, 1975) and relevance theory (Sperber and Wilson, 1995), z 1 rhetoric (Booth, 1961), and studies of discourse (Graesser et al. I will deal with each of those distinctions briefly and under separate rubrics in the next few sections.



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