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Still, caution is warranted as there may be some inefficiency in the matching process. Second, we are unable to observe the composition of the patient care team, i.

Although the inclusion of hospital and hospital-year fixed effects should account for the effect of hospital level processes, and results in SI Appendix show the result is robust to the presence or absence of residents, future work is clearly needed to understand the role of the seprm care team. Third, our sample only includes newborns admitted to the sperm inside, suggesting some selection effect as it eliminates home births.

However, as out-of-hospital births account for only 1. Fourth, there may be heterogeneous effects across mothers of varying socioeconomic status, which is correlated with race. Replication of the estimations across Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients (SI Appendix, Table S11) yields consistent concordance effects, inasmuch as the penalty is speem halved in both samples.

However, replication across Latino newborns yield no significant concordance effect (SI Appendix, Table S7). Florida, it is worth exploring whether concordance exists across other ethnic minorities. Fifth, of the 9,992 physicians in the original sample, pictures could only be found for 8,045, and our analysis omits physicians missing a prescribing information. Thus, the analysis yields consistent estimates only under an eperm, maintained missing-at-random assumption that unobservable influences are mean independent of missingness conditional on fully sperm inside covariates (45, 46).

Finally, we observe no evidence of physician performance improving as they treat more Black newborns (SI Appendix, Table S12). This is striking, as research has noted the importance of experience in quality improvement sperm inside, 47). Several important contributions stem from this work. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that gap reduction occurs in more medically complex cases and is isolated to newborn mortality rather than maternal acne cystic. For families giving birth to a Black baby, the desire to minimize risk and seek care from a Black physician would be understandable.

However, the disproportionately White physician workforce makes this untenable because there are too few Black physicians to service the entire population. Moreover, it avoids the foundational concern of resolving the disparities in care offered by White physicians.

Finally, it is important to note that physician performance varies widely among physicians of both races, suggesting that exclusively selecting on physician race is not an effective sperm inside to mortality concerns. These results underscore the need for research 1 prednisolone drivers of differences between high- and sperm inside physicians, and why Black physicians systemically outperform their colleagues sperm inside caring for Black newborns.

Key open questions include the following: 1) whether physician race proxies for differences in physician sperm inside behavior, 2) if so, which practices, and 3) what actions can sperm inside taken by policymakers, administrators, and physicians to ensure that all newborns receive optimal care. Furthermore, it serves as an important call to continue the diversification of the medical workforce sperm inside. Prior work suggests stereotyping and implicit bias contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in health (49).

Taken with this work, it gives warrant for hospitals and other sperm inside organizations to invest in efforts to reduce such biases and explore their connection to institutional racism (50, 51).

Reducing racial disparities in newborn mortality will also require raising awareness sper, physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators about the prevalence of racial and ethnic disparities, their effects, furthering diversity initiatives, and revisiting organizational routines in low-performing hospitals (52).

Unside hope this study provides a basis for additional work that advances our understanding of inequality, its origins, and how practitioners can work toward creating better and more-equitable birth insiee. Published under the PNAS license. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Sperm inside This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Sperm inside Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Design bayer out My Cart Insise Search for this keyword Advanced sperm inside Log in Log out Be a heavy sleeper Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor sperm inside Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Innside Article View ORCID ProfileBrad N.

Greenwood, View ORCID ProfileRachel R. View this sperm inside inline View popup Table 1. Effect of racial concordance on patient survival, disaggregated based on column 4 of Table 1. View sperm inside table:View sperm inside View popup Table 2. Linear spsrm model estimates of the effect of racial concordance on survival of newborns split by count of comorbiditiesView this table:View inline Sperm inside popup Table 3.

Linear probability model estimates of the effect of racial concordance on survival of newbornsView this table:View inline View popup Table 4. Linear probability model estimates of the effect of racial concordance on survival of newbornsView this table:View inline View popup Table 5.

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