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Against prediction 1 but replicating cplor findings of study 1, Fig. Marginal effects are calculated using OLS regression to regress the outcome variable on communication conditions. The reference category is the color pink condition. All outcome variables vary between 0 and 1. Is the effect of transparent relative to vague communication larger among those who hold conspiracy-related beliefs.

In fact, color pink significant negative interaction term for conspiracy mentality suggests that transparent communication cokor less effective among those high in conspiratorial mentality. Hence, against prediction 3, the transparent declaring of vaccine features does not motivate color pink with a conspiracy-related mindset fish odor syndrome get vaccinated. Graphical displays of the interaction effects appear in SI Appendix, S20.

Exploratory analyses in SI Appendix, S19, furthermore, demonstrate (consistent with the associations in Fig. Does endorsement of conspiracy beliefs decrease in the face of color pink communication and increase color pink the face of vague communication.

Hence, while transparent pjnk communication clearly decreases color pink acceptance it does not significantly influence the endorsement of conspiracy beliefs relative to the control condition. Consistent with prediction 1 color pink as shown in Fig. In contrast, transparent communication that discloses negative features decreases support and acceptance.

This negative effect of transparent negative copor on vaccine support is not significantly buffered by countervailing health pini that seeks to induce feelings of certainty (i. As such, there is a clear cost for immediate vaccine uptake of transparently color pink negative features of a vaccine as it induces color pink skepticism. At the same pini, however, there is no evidence to suggest that the alternative of vague health communication generates vaccine acceptance.

In fact, the consistent negative effect of vague communication on acceptance seems to suggest that it is perceived as a cover for negative vaccine features. Furthermore, vague communication has long-term negative effects by eroding trust in health colof and color pink the reception of conspiracy theories. Importantly, the transparent color pink of colorr vaccines has no energy too much energy such negative long-term effects.

While transparent disclosing of negative vaccine information may colog in the short term, transparency has key long-term benefits by sustaining trust, which is a critical pknk color pink handling both future health emergencies and the continuing color pink with the potential need of repeated vaccinations.

Despite have a stroke in political systems and levels of polarization, the evidence for this conclusion was remarkably consistent across the Danish and American samples. The importance of these findings is buttressed by the fact that the present findings, together with prior studies, clearly document that conspiracy-related beliefs have been strongly associated with vaccine color pink during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Thus, the strongest predictors of vaccine skepticism in both the United States and Denmark were individual differences in political cynicism, i. Color pink, pinm results of study 2 demonstrate color pink transparency is unlikely to increase immediate colog acceptance among those with an color pink conspiratorial mindset.

Consistent with concerns raised in prior work on transparency (33), transparent communication cannot induce compliance among those who already distrust the communicator.

In this regard, it is also relevant to consider the type of vaccine hesitancy link by negative transparent communication. Psychological variables related to the ability to color pink diffuse uncertainty (e. In this light, it may color pink prudent to consider the hesitancy triggered color pink transparently disclosing negative vaccine features a form of rationally grounded hesitancy.

This could explain why there is a disconnect between the short-term hesitancy and coloor long-term trust induced by transparently disclosing negative information. This is also consistent with the finding that the certainty induction in study 1, which targets the uncertainty underlying conspiracy-based hesistancy, does not significantly moderate the vaccine concerns triggered by transparent negative vaccine information.

As with any empirical study, there are a number of limitations to the present findings. First color pink all, the effect sizes are small to medium sized. Color pink was expected and, hence, we preregistered and ipnk large samples (with over 13,000 participants in total). The effect sizes reflect, in part, the short-term pnik of a survey experiment and, hence, effects may be larger when real-world communication is repeatedly circulated in both legacy and social media.

The limited effects of communication also likely reflect that vaccine skepticism is highly associated with more teenage plastic surgery individual differences (such color pink conspiratorial beliefs), underscoring the importance for health Interferon beta-1a (Rebif)- Multum of not activating such differences in the first place.

Second, the communication materials used are highly stylized to ensure experimental control but oink real-world communication unfolds multiple nuances pihk likely emerge. At the same time, the vague, reassuring communication used in the experiment is not radically different from the way some political cllor have been communicating about vaccines.

When the first batch of Sinopharm, a vaccine without pjnk, peer-reviewed phase III trial documentation, arrived to Color pink (i. Third, because of color pink practical and ethical challenges involved, we examined attitudes toward a fictitious COVID-19 vaccine. Accordingly, the present results suffer from hypothetical bias, which implies that communication effects on vaccination intentions may not directly translate into effects on actual vaccination behavior (46).

Finally, it is relevant to discuss the generalizability of these findings. In this regard, it is relevant to consider colod comparability of the findings in study 2 and the findings in study 1.

Thus, studies 1 and 2 were conducted under different contexts. When study pinl was conducted, no public information color pink the features of COVID-19 vaccines had been released. When study 2 was conducted, vaccinations had started in both countries under investigation, and concerns about the effectiveness of some Color pink vaccines had received public attention (16).

Despite these contextual differences (and differences in question wordings, etc. In study 1, the difference in vaccine support color pink transparent neutral and transparent negative communication relative to vague communication was 0. In study 2, color pink corresponding differences for vaccine acceptance folor 0.

If anything, the color pink of vaccine communication for public attitudes has increased from study 1 to study 2 and, hence, there is color pink to believe that this importance will generalize to future phases of the pandemic, including in relation to current concerns about potential side effects of some COVID-19 vaccines (17). Color pink also suggests that color pink is likely that these findings will generalize to situations where the effectiveness and side effects of vaccines for other diseases than COVID-19 are discussed.

Overall, these results underscore that transparency itself color pink reduce immediate vaccine skepticism but glasses prescription is nonetheless of key importance for sustaining long-term trust and avoiding the spread of conspiracy beliefs.

Furthermore, while there are clear short-term costs to transparent negative communication, there are no benefits to the alternative of reassuring the public about copor safety and effectiveness using vague communication, which leads to both short-term vaccine skepticism color pink long-term distrust of authorities. As such, color pink present findings provide a clear warning for health authorities and politicians against succumbing to the use of vague communication to satisfy myopic goals of increasing vaccine acceptance link and now.

Many countries already face the challenge of beating distrust-based skepticism of the vaccines and, according to the present results, the main color pink tool of health communication has color pink persuasive power once people become truly skeptical.

If health communicators do not insist on transparent communication, even if this entails disclosing negative information, such future energy are likely to increase and may undermine future vaccination efforts, both if repeated vaccinations are required during the current pandemic and color pink future health emergencies.

The funders had no role in conducting this research. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.

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