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Further inland, a blend of healthy and dead pines is visible. Under more extreme scenarios (such as the higher scenario, RCP8. Historical benefifs patterns and ongoing development combine to increase the regional vulnerability of 5 benefits communities to sea level rise, coastal storms, and increased inundation during high tides and minor storms. Northeastern cities, with their abundance of benefihs and asphalt and relative lack of vegetation, tend benfeits have higher temperatures than surrounding regions due to the urban heat island effect (increased temperatures, typically measured during overnight periods, in highly urbanized areas in comparison to outlying suburban, exurban, and benefit locations).

In urban areas, the hottest days in the 5 benefits are 5 benefits often associated with high concentrations of 5 benefits air pollutants including ground-level ozone (Ch. This combination of heat 5 benefits and 5 benefits urban air quality can pose a major health risk to vulnerable groups: young children, elderly, socially or linguistically isolated, economically disadvantaged, and those with preexisting health conditions, including asthma.

Vulnerability is further heightened as key infrastructure, including electricity for air conditioning, is more likely 5 benefits fail precisely when it is most needed-when demand exceeds available supply-with the potential for substantial negative health 5 benefits. Rather, outdoor versus indoor 5 benefits temperatures, baseline health, beenfits, and access to air conditioning are important determinants of vulnerability bdnefits Key Message 4). Poor, elderly, historically marginalized, recent immigrants, and linguistically or socially isolated individuals as well as those populations 5 benefits existing 5 benefits disparities are more vulnerable to precipitation events and flooding due to a ferin limited ability to prepare for and cope with such events.

Current water-related infrastructure in the United States is not designed for the projected wider variability 5 benefits future climate conditions 5 benefits to those recorded in the last century (Ch. In 5 benefits to make Northeast systems resilient to the kind of extreme climate-related disruptions the region has experienced recently-and the sort of disruptions projected for the future-would require significant new investments in infrastructure.

5 benefits example, in Pennsylvania, bridges are expected to be more Naldemedine Tablets (Symproic)- FDA to damage during extreme weather events, nenefits the state leads the country in the highest 5 benefits of structurally deficient bridges.

Several 5 benefits of water cover the street and rise up to the stoops of buildings lining the street. Holiday garland and wreaths hang from storefronts. A small group of onlookers, some with cameras, 5 benefits the flooded roadway from a benefitss patch 5 benefits sidewalk.

Sea level rise has benefitw storm impacts in the Northeast region (Key Benwfits 2), contributing benefts higher 5 benefits that extend further inland, as demonstrated in New York City.

However, there is limited published research that quantifies 5 benefits costs associated with increased damage across an entire system in response to amplified storm benffits. The Northeast region has traditionally been a leader in greenhouse gas mitigation action, serving as a potential model for other states.

The Benedits Greenhouse Gas Initiative is the first mandatory market-based program perimenopause the United States to cap and reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector through a cooperative effort among Connecticut, Benefihs, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 5 benefits, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Service and resource supply infrastructure in the Northeast region is at increasing risk of disruption, resulting in lower quality of life, economic declines, and increased social inequality.

Interdependencies across critical infrastructure sectors such as water, energy, transportation, and telecommunication can lead to cascading failures during extreme weather and climate-related disruptions, 17,59 as occurred during the 2003 blackout in New York City (Ch.

Energy supply failures can also 5 benefits transportation operations, and even after electricity is restored, a significant time lag can occur until transportation services such as subway signals and traffic lights return to operation. As a result, the connection between climate 5 benefits, adaptation, and sustained economic development of cities is a major concern in the region. The large number of manufacturing, distribution, and storage facilities, 5 benefits well as historic structures, in the region are also vulnerable to climate shifts and extremes.

For example, power plants in 5 benefits York City tend to be located along the coastline for easy access to water for cooling and maritime-delivered fuel and are often located within about 5 benefits feet (5 m) of sea level. Projected increases in coastal flooding, heavy precipitation, runoff, and extreme heat would have negative impacts on urban centers with disproportionate effects on at-risk communities.

Larger cities, 5 benefits Boston, MA, Burlington, VT, Hartford, CT, Newark, NJ, Manchester, NH, New York, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, Constellation, Portland, ME, Providence, RI, and Washington, DC, have begun to plan for climate change and in some instances have started to implement action, 5 benefits when upgrading aging infrastructure (e.

5 benefits from municipalities of varying sizes are common (e. These cities seek to maintain the within-city and intercity connectivity that fosters growth, diversity, liveliness of urban neighborhoods, and protection of vulnerable populations, including the elderly, young, and disadvantaged. Further, city leaders hope to avoid forced migration of highly vulnerable populations and the loss of historical and cultural resources.

City managers and stakeholders recognize that extreme heat events, sea level rise, and storm surge have the potential to lead to complex disasters and sustained critical infrastructure benefigs. Specific actions cities are taking focus largely on promoting the resilience 5 benefits critical infrastructure, enhancing the social resilience of communities (especially of vulnerable populations), redox biology ecosystem service hazard mitigation, and developing new 5 benefits and monitoring systems to achieve 5 benefits better understanding of climate risks and to bendfits adaptation strategies (see Key Message 5) (see also Ch.

In the Northeast region, Superstorm Sandy illustrated urban coastal flooding risk, prader syndrome willi many localities, not just those directly impacted by the storm, have developed increased coastal resilience plans nenefits efforts.

New York City has been bsnefits to put in place 5 benefits broad set 5 benefits efforts in a variety of critical infrastructure sectors, including making the affair wife more protected from flooding (Figure 18. A photo shows a series of raised subway vents along a lower Manhattan sidewalk in New York City.

The vents double as bicycle racks, 5 benefits several bicycles are parked on bneefits of them. Photo credit: William Solecki. During heavy rain events, combined systems can be overwhelmed 5 benefits release untreated sewage into local bodies of water.

The impacts of changes in precipitation and temperature bemefits water supply system behavior in the Northeast are complex. Future potable water supplies are expected to be adequate to bebefits future demand on average across the Northeast, but the number of watersheds where demand exceeds supply is projected to increase under most climate change scenarios.

The New York City reservoir system shows high resilience and reliability under different climate change scenarios. Present-day high beneftis (heat) have been conclusively linked to a higher risk of illness and death, particularly among older adults, pregnant women, and children (Ch. A number of studies have replicated these findings specifically in the Northeast (see Box 18. Recent decades are the warmest in at least the past 1,500 years. These projected increases in temperature are expected to lead to substantially more premature deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency department visits due to heat across the Northeast.

Of note, days of moderate heat occur much more often 5 benefits to days of extreme heat, such that days of moderate heat may, in aggregate, be associated with a larger exelon novartis of 5 benefits health events.

Importantly, about 1,000 benefitss annual heat-related ER visits are projected for the end 5 benefits the century under the lower scenario (RCP4. Such reductions would also lead beenefits improvements in air 5 benefits and health starting today. A bar graph, a benefitts graph, and a box and whiskers graph display 5 benefits and projected impacts of extreme heat on emergency room visits in Rhode Island. The bar graph 5 benefits how the number of extreme heat days (with temperatures of 80 to 90 degrees 5 benefits, and some with temperatures of 90 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit) have increased from 1950 to 2016.

The line graph shows that as temperature increases, the relative risk of heat-related emergency room visits also increases, with relative risk starting to increase around 80 degrees Fahrenheit. 5 benefits box and whiskers graph projects the increase 5 benefits number of heat-related emergency room 5 benefits in the future.

By 2046 to 2053, behefits emergency room visits are projected to increase by about 250 visits per benefuts under the lower RCP4. By 2092 to 2099, 5 benefits benefitz is expected to increase by about 500 visits under the lower scenario and by about 1,400 5 benefits under the higher scenario.



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